The magic stone that helped humanity decode the ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs; it was discovered near the town of Rosetta (modern-day Rashid) northeast of Alexandria by a Frenchman during the first French occupation of Egypt. The lucky fact that it had the same priestly decree regarding Ptolemy V written in 3 different inscription languages (Hieroglyphs, Greek and Demotic) was the key to inspiring British Mr. Young and French Mr. Champollion to decipher the Hieroglyphs based on comparing the texts to each other. They also found out that the royal names were usually written in a special cylindrical shaped frame called cartouche. The translation of the Hieroglyphs was a breakthrough which opened the gate to understanding the whole ancient Egyptian history. The Rosetta stone is now housed in the British Museum and was dated to about 196 B.C.
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